Energy Conversion and Integrated Solid Waste Management - Essay Example Nonetheless, the resultant combustion ash leads to concentration of inorganic hazardous materials in the refuse. Additionally, refuse combustion could yield other chemicals that could be toxic. The remaining 10% of waste has to be disposed off, mostly landfilled. The Integrated Solid Waste Management, ISMW, is a national solid waste management strategy developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA to assist local communities in making decisions that promote the most environmentally acceptable strategies. This gives a list of five, starting from the most desirable to the least desirable strategy. The first strategy is to reduce the quantity of waste generated from the source to minimize the effect on energy reserves and natural resources. The next most desirable strategy is to reuse materials. After implementing the first two, materials would then be recycled and recovered. Then, combustion, including all treatment methods, follows. Finally, after implementing all the four strategies, the remaining refuse would be landfilled. Engineering helps in balancing community needs when implementing the ISWM strategy to avoid any problems. This strategy has led to the dramatic growth of recycling in the past 20 years, Worrell and Vesilind (2012) documenting a growth from 10% recycling in 1989 to 59% in 2008 in California and 16% in 1990 to 33% in 2008
Reiki Therapy The History of Reiki According to the Reiki Holistic Healing at Christal Center web page, the word â€œReikiâ€ is defined as the Japanese word for â€œuniversal energyâ€. Reiki therapy is a â€œlaying on of handsâ€ by a therapist who has studied Reiki, and therefore has enabled him/herself to provide a channel of healing energy for their clients. Although Dr. Makao Usui, a Christian monk, is credited with rediscovering Reiki therapy in Japan during the 1800â€™s, believers say this therapy dates all the way back to when Jesus healed others through his touch thousands of years ago (http://www.cwizard.com/christal/reiki.htm). Wade Ryan (a Reiki Master) claims in his web page on facts about Reiki that this is not a religion, but that the spiritual energy received by clients often leads to an expansion of oneâ€™s own personal faith (http://www.freeyellow.com/members/Reiki/page1.html). â€œThe Three Reikisâ€ (http://www.freeyellow.com/members/Reiki/page2.html) explains that about five years ago distinctions for three forms of Reiki were recognized. The three forms are Usui Reiki, Vajra Reiki, and Karuna Reiki. Usui Reiki is the traditional form of Reiki rediscovered by Dr. Usui. Usui Reiki is noted for being a very gentle therapy, and therefore appropriate for adults and children seeking to maintain their good health, for providing energy to those who are lacking it due to illness or treatment, and also for the elderly. During Usui Reiki, the Practitionerâ€™s Hand Positions are centered mainly on the head or torso. Although most Practitioners are satisfied with Usui Reiki Ability, those who are interested in a wider range of Healing Energy (i.e. caregivers of the extremely ill) would be more interested in Vajra R... ... very few studies out on this topic, and those that are out seem to disagree with each other; some are in favor of the benefits of Reiki, and some claim that these benefits only exist because of psychological reasons or donâ€™t exist at all. Although Reiki is an ancient practice, it is just beginning to become popular in modern medicine. We can expect more and more research to be published in the near future as more studies are conducted and completed. Bibliography Green, CA (1998). Reflection of a therapeutic touch experience: case study 2. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 4(1), 17-21. Samarel, N. (1997). Therapeutic touch, dialogue, and women's experiences in breast cancer surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice, 12(1), 62-70. Thornton, Lucia Marie (1993). Effects of energetic healing on female nursing students. MAI, 31/01, 284.
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